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Zheng-tong: Year 9, Month 5, Day 28

14 Jun 1444

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Imperial orders of instructions were sent to Mang De-la, the pacification superintendent of the Ava-Burma Military and Civilian Pacification Superintendency, his son Bu-la-lang Ma-ha Sheng-yi-su-la and the major and minor chieftains. The orders read: "Recently, you memorialized that the rebellious Lu-chuan bandit Si Ren-fa had been captured by you, that he was fettered in the city of Ava, and that you wished to send him to the capital. You were afraid that en route he would be taken by by the bandit followers and thus you requested that government troops be sent to Gong-zhang to receive him. The Court allowed your request. How was it to know that you would be untrustworthy, that you would be guileful in one hundred ways, and that people you had sent on the pretext of reporting information would engage in spying on our situation. The regional commander and the other officials clearly saw your sentiments and detained the people whom you had sent, as hostages to be handed back after you handed over Si Ren-fa. You then led your gang members in attacking the Imperial army. These actions are not loyal or righteous actions. Heaven and Earth cannot tolerate them and the spirits have all been angered. Now, the senior and junior officers have all requested that an army be raised to punish you in accordance with the laws of the land. I have considered that when the Imperial army arrives, it will not be possible to avoid the innocent being harmed, and thus I am leniently sending you orders of instruction. You should embody and reflect on the Court's will to show forgiveness and protect the lives of all living things in your region. Immediately send the bandit leader Si Ren-fa under escort to Yun-nan and your crimes will be pardoned. You will also be rewarded and promoted, and treated with grace like before. If you persist in your evil and do not repent, I will have to order the regional commander and other officials to lead their crack troops down the river, to cut off the sea, land and river routes and then to advance against you. They will kill, you, your father, mother, wives and children, while your people will be exterminated, your cities and stockades will be destroyed and your territory will be razed. At that time, it will be too late for regret. Since the reigns of my forebears, an office has existed in Ava-Burma and officials have been appointed to govern the region and the people. Your ancestors were all loyal and reverent and respectfully fulfilled their tribute duties. Now, you are willing to join with bandits in a gang. There is no greater crime than this! The Lu-chuan bandit leader plotted rebellion. Now, the father and son have had to skulk away and their wives and children have not been protected. Their families have been killed, their land has been lost and disaster has extended to everyone in their tribe (種類). You have not drawn lessons from their fate and instead are imitating them. This shows that you want to bring calamity upon yourself. Verily, those who respect Heaven, serve the superior and protect all living things will certainly receive Heaven's support. Those who follow evil, raise troops and bring calamity to the innocent will certainly receive Heaven's punishment. The ability to bring disaster or prosperity to all living things in your region lies in your hands. The opportunity should not be lost, as further grace will not be forthcoming. You should note this well."

Ying-zong: juan 116.11a-b

Zhong-yang Yan-jiu yuan Ming Shi-lu, volume 27, page 2353/54

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Preferred form of citation for this entry:

Geoff Wade, translator, Southeast Asia in the Ming Shi-lu: an open access resource, Singapore: Asia Research Institute and the Singapore E-Press, National University of Singapore, http://www.epress.nus.edu.sg/msl/reign/zheng-tong/year-9-month-5-day-28, accessed June 27, 2019